Expressions of Growth Factors in Autologous Derived Platelet-Rich Plasma and Platelet-Poor Plasma; Implication for Tissue Reparation and Wound Healing
Objectives: The growth factors (GFs) released from platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is proposed to modulate vascular reactivity and the inflammatory process. other GFs implicated in the wound healing cascade includes Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor –beta (TGF-beta), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)fibroblast growth factor(FGF) and vascular endothelia growth factor (VEGF) and many others. This study attempts to quantitatively evaluate the level of expressions of these GFs derived from platelet-rich plasma from healthy volunteers and diabetic patients
Method: Samples from 14 healthy donors and 6 diabetic patients were analyzed. Platelet counts from the diabetic patients’ whole blood and platelet rich plasma (PRP) were analyzed. GFs levels were measured from autologous derived PRP and Platelet-poor plasma (PPP) using ELISA and multiplex immunoassay (Luminex system).
Results: Predictably we found a 6-fold increase in platelet counts from PRP in both groups compared to the whole blood. GF expression in diabetics did not correlate with the platelet count or with the PRP on the regression analysis (r (p) – >0.2 <= 0.9.). GFs expressions were similar in healthy donor and diabetic patient. GF level were significantly higher for PRP compared with the PPP in both groups ( P < 0.001) for PDGF-AA, EGF, VEGF, TGF-beta and P-Sel (P-selectin) while there was a trend to lower levels for FGF-2 and IGF (P> 0.05) in both diabetic and healthy volunteer.
Conclusion: Sequestration and concentration of Platelet rich plasma from whole blood with expression of varying growth factors that have been implicated in wound healing was possible with the use of bed side point of care. Furthermore, we demonstrated that activating Platelet poor plasma also released similar GFs as PRP but at lesser level of expression. We believe that this process may enhance delivery of GFs directly to wounds, thereby enhancing the normal physiological wound healing and tissue reparation processes.